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BMSB Update: 1st & 2nd Gen. Feeding on Pear

BMSB Adults Moving to Pheromone Trap Sept. 9, 2016

BMSB Adults Moving to Pheromone Trap Sept. 9, 2016

We have seen an alarming increase and movement of BMSB from forested deciduous trees to agricultural pheromone traps this week, reaching the threshold of 10 adults / trap in numerous locations.

We have also seen 2nd instar nymphs on Ailanthus altissima (Tree of Heaven) foliage, which is evidence of a 2nd generation emerging. With a second generation there comes an exponential increase in the populations as we move into mid-season harvest of tree fruit.

It may be that drought conditions have prompted BMSB to move into orchards to find moisture over the past few days. Once in the orchard the adults will feed intensively on fruit in preparation for winter. They have been observed often moving in and out of woodland habitat and concentrating feeding primarily along the orchard edge. Depending on temperature, adults will begin to seek out overwintering sites over the next two months.

We are seeing adults and late instar nymphs in Asian pear, which are a favored host. We’ve also seen the native adult brown and the BMSB in Bosc and Bartlet pear this afternoon.

You can view the EDDMaps/BMSB site to obtain trap threshold updates by NYS county throughout the remainder of the season.

BMSB on Asian Pear

BMSB on Asian Pear

BMSB on Bosc

BMSB on Bosc

Scouting & Monitoring: BMSB is a perimeter pest, which tends to aggregate and feed along the orchard edge in highest numbers. Scout along the orchard block wooded edge utilizing a 1 BMSB adult per 100′ as a threshold for application. Or, monitor blocks with historic injury from stink bug using baited Tedders Traps with kill strips, applying a 10 trap per week threshold for applications to control the insect. Contact AgBio to order traps.

Scout frequently along the orchard edge. Instruct your harvesters on what to look for by showing them images of BMSB adults and nymph stages. Have them notify you if any are found and in which rows and blocks require treatment. Over the next few weeks the insects will be building in numbers. Keeping well informed of their presence is critical to reduce damage from the stink bug complex in late varieties.

bmsb_figure2_0573
From left to right, four nymphal stages of BMSB (second through fifth instar), adult male, and adult female. Photo by W. Hershberger

Management: In sites where traps or scouting exceed threshold:
Applications for management of BMSB should be made at the first available window using one of the most effective insecticides that will best fit your harvest schedule. WHOLE ORCHARD APPLICATIONS SHOULD BE CONDUCTED UPON TRAP THRESHOLD OR SCOUTING PRESENCE IN FRUIT. This application should then be followed up with border row applications at 7-10 days. Base follow-up applications on a cleaning and resetting traps with reapplications of border rows made upon a 10 BMSB adult trap capture.

Efficacy Chart of Insecticides for BMSB Management.

Efficacy Chart of Insecticides for BMSB Management.

The list of the most effective insecticides for BMSB management is found above. NYS labeled insecticides effective for use against the BMSB are available in four major classes including pre-mix formulations. Danitol is likely to be the best choice during the latter part of the season as its short pre-harvest interval and efficacy is a good fit. It is not as effective as Bifenthrin, however, it’s a very good choice for management of BMSB in peach as it has a 3-day PHI, strong efficacy, especially as a knock down insecticide, and also works well against the native stink bugs.

New York’s Section 18 application for the use of products containing bifenthrin has recently been approved by the EPA to control brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB). This is a renewal by 

the EPA and NYS DEC of a ‘Section 18 Emergency/Crisis Exemption Approval’ use permit for the pyrethroid bifenthrin to control brown marmorated stink bug on apples, peaches, and nectarines this year. Comparative efficacy studies in the lab and field have shown bifenthrin to be one of the most effective insecticides available against BMSB for use in NY State. Although this is an important tool for management of BMSB, the residual against this pest is relatively short lived, requiring vigilance in trapping and scouting 4 days post application. The regional application request was submitted to EPA from the mid-Atlantic states of DE, MD, NC, NJ, PA,VA, WV and NY state.

 Its use is limited to Columbia, Dutchess, Orange and Ulster Counties of NY.

eddmaps-9-9-16

Bifenthrin is one of the most effective insecticides for use against the brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB). Its use is limited to Columbia, Dutchess, Orange and Ulster Counties of NY. Upon determining the presence and trap threshold for BMSB in counties where the pest has caused injury to fruit in the past, applications of bifenthrin should be considered as the first step in managing the insect, taking into account the 30-day interval between applications. Consider a first application to be made along the orchard edge, bordering deciduous woodland and hedgerow or clusters of host trees such as catalpa, black locust, Tree of Heaven, maple, or ash. The need for a second application can be triggered as the insect is observed on fruit and/or captured in pheromone traps using 10 BMSB adult per trap per week as indicated by the EDDMaps.org site or trap presence on site.

Bifenthrin is a pyrethroid sold under the trade names of Brigade WSB (10% bifenthrin, EPA Reg. No. 279-3108, FMC Corp.), Bifenture EC (25% bifenthrin, EPA Reg. No. 70506-227), and Bifenture 10DF (10% bifenthrin, EPA Reg. No. 70506-227, United Phosphorus Inc.). 

 Regardless of the product used, a maximum of 0.08 to 0.2 lb[AI]/acre/season will be allowed, with no more than 0.5 lb a.i./acre applied per year with multiple applications made at a minimum of 30 day intervals; a restricted entry interval (REI) of 12 hours and pre-harvest interval (PHI) of 14 days must be observed.

 When applying either of these materials for BMSB control on apples, peaches, or nectarines, growers must have possession of the Section 18 label. The 2016 labels will be posted as soon as they are made available.

Tedders trap using pheromone combination lures in peach.

Tedders trap using pheromone combination lures in peach.

Labels specific for the Section 18 Exemption for bifenthrin use in NY can be found here for 2016 reference.
Brigade WSB
Bifenture EC
Bifenture 10DF

Regardless of the product used, a maximum of 0.08 to 0.2 lb[AI]/acre/season will be allowed, with no more than 0.5 lb a.i./acre applied per year with multiple applications made at a minimum of 30 day intervals; a restricted entry interval (REI) of 12 hours and pre-harvest interval (PHI) of 14 days must be observed.

 When applying either of these materials for BMSB control on apples, peaches, or nectarines, growers must have possession of the Section 18 label.

BMSB Management: The brown marmorated stink bug is an arboreal insect, residing in woodland deciduous trees. Although the insect prefers an arboreal habitat, with woodland tree species providing nutritional and reproductive resources, in the Northeast it appears to move out of woodlands to orchards during periods of low relative humidity and the onset of drought conditions.

The use of pheromone baited Tedder’s traps will intercept the insect as it makes it way out of the woods and into agricultural crops, including apple and peach. A weekly trap capture of 10 adults / trap is presently being used as the action threshold for management. A single adult within the orchard perimeter rows bordering woodlands or a single apple damaged by stink bug can also be considered as viable action thresholds for BMSB.

Through cooperative efforts from NYSAES Geneva, County based CCE, the Eastern NY Commercial Horticultural Team and the Hudson Valley Research Lab have been monitoring 44 traps in 14 NY counties with data available on-demand, accessible on the Internet at EDDMaps.org. Upon determining the presence of BMSB in counties where the pest is at or above trap threshold and or has caused injury to fruit, applications of bifenthrin should be considered as the first application in managing the insect. The use of bifenthrin is preferred at this time due to its efficacy, a 30-day interval restriction between applications and a 14d PHI.

At trap threshold, during scouting observations of adults or at first fruit injury, consider a first application to be made along the orchard edge as a perimeter spray directed only at the crop. Apply to blocks along the deciduous woodland, hedgerow or clusters of host trees such as catalpa, black locust, Tree of Heaven, maple, cherry or ash. The need for a second application can be triggered as the insect is observed on fruit and/or captured in pheromone traps using 10 BMSB adult per trap per week as indicated by the EDDMaps.org site or farm trap presence on site.

The rational behind the use of perimeter management is based on two important facts. First, BMSB adults are not endemic as they do not reside or overwinter in the orchard. They will move from deciduous woodlands and or infested fields of vegetable crops initially into the orchard edge. Secondly, from historical orchard damage assessment, BMSB injury occurs within the first 90’ perimeter bordering wooded edge.

In early August, 2012, we observed BMSB developing a second generation. This was followed by movement into the orchard and increased feeding in red delicious beginning late August, with highest numbers of adults observed along the wooded edge of the farm. Across commodities, the highest damage levels from BMSB occur in Ag crops along the perimeter edge. Management along the orchard perimeter crop appears to be very effective and economical. It also preserves predatory mite late in the season when European red mite and two spotted spider mite tend to flare-up.